During the entire service life, the roof should protect the home from rain, snow, wind, scorching rays of the sun and winter frost, while maintaining warmth and comfort in the house. Only properly designed greenhouse roofs can cope with the tasks set. Types of roofs by design include many different options for arrangement, each of which must take into account all the architectural nuances of house building, as well as be appropriate in a particular climate zone.
The choice of roof structure is an important stage in the construction of greenhouse
Existing roof types
Choosing the right and reliable roof is a serious and responsible mission. After all, it is built not for one season, but for decades. In addition, a beautiful roof is also a worthy appearance of your home. Photos of greenhouses, beautiful roofs of which perfectly complete the architectural composition, a clear confirmation of this. Also, each developer seeks to give the roof of the house being built a rational form that can bear all the vagaries of the weather.
Combined roof type country house
The shapes of roofs for greenhouses, photos of which can be found on the Internet, are surprisingly diverse. Numerous models of designs can be the basis for bold ideas and help to make a choice. Modern roof projects of private houses allow you to realize the most original ideas in any style.
Before you stop on the best materials for greenhouse roof, you should familiarize yourself with the existing forms and design features of roofs. The main criteria by which roofs of various types are classified are:
- roof pitch;
- form of construction;
- roof material.
The choice of a roof structure depends on many factors, for example, the climate in the region
How perfect this or that type of roof is for a home depends on the proper selection of all three parameters. The main factor influencing the design of the roof is the climate zone. Features of the climate will affect the slope of the structure, its shape and the choice of roofing material. It makes no sense to build a roof with a slight slope in the area where there is a large amount of snowfall: they will accumulate and destroy the structure.
Flat roofs are relatively inexpensive to perform, as in this case minimal material and construction costs will be required. You don’t need to worry that the wind will tear off the roof. Many on flat roofs equip additional open areas for various needs. But it should be borne in mind that precipitation will spoil such a roof, forming puddles on the surface.
In the modern design of houses, you can often find a combination of different types of roofs
Helpful advice! In order to ensure a flat design with natural water drainage, it is recommended to pour an expanded clay layer at a slight angle.
There is also a division of roofs into unexploited and exploited, attic and non-attic. The exploited roofs are just used as platforms for recreation and sports, covering them with special material. The area of such a roof, as a rule, is equal to the area of the house itself, so many owners are thinking about the rational use of this space. A serious drawback is the exposure of the coating to rain.
When laying metal, the maximum angle of inclination is not standardized, and the minimum is 15 °
Attic structures are called when the distance between the ceiling and the roof surface is not more than 1.5 m. Typically, the space under such a roof is exploited for technical purposes. Unhappy roofs are used when there is an idea to use the space under the roof as a living room – an attic. In addition, such an additional floor can be built over an existing house.
Varieties of roofs are distinguished into a large group according to the geometric shape and number of slopes. A pitched roof is called if its angle of inclination exceeds 10 °. Roofs come with one, two and four slopes. More complex structures have combined slopes – these are hipped, multi-gable roofs. In private construction, dome or conical models are less common. Roofs, including several different forms, are called combined.
Roof type in use: a recreation area is arranged on a flat surface
Types of roofs for greenhouses: we select the optimal slope
Depending on the slope, there are flat and pitched roofs. Under the slope understand the angle of inclination of the slope relative to the horizon. It is measured in degrees or as a percentage of the height of the roof to the span. So, a 100% slope corresponds to 45 °. For the convenience of the translation of these indicators, a special table has been developed.
The main reason for arranging the slope is the timely removal of precipitation from the roof. Roofs with a slight slope (up to 1%) will often leak and cause inconvenience to the owners. In addition, in terms of surface design, such roofs do not look aesthetically pleasing for private homes. Photos of flat roofs indicate that most often such structures are used for cabins, garages and outbuildings.
Correspondence table of the degree of the angle to the percentage of the roof slope:
|Degrees, º||Interest%||Degrees, º||Interest%||Degrees, º||Interest%|
In addition to precipitation, wind affects the roof. When the slope increases by 20-30 °, the wind load increases 5 times. And if the slope is small, the wind flow can penetrate the roof through the joints of the coating and easily disrupt the structure. With the help of a competently selected roof project of greenhouse, you can get the right slope angle and avoid the possible consequences of the elements.
Helpful advice! When choosing a roof option, it should be borne in mind that the maximum value of the snow load on the roof is achieved when the slope is 30 °. For the roof to be able to self-clean, the slope should be 45 °.
A pitched roof is often erected for garages, outbuildings, change houses
In order to correctly determine the required slope, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the size of the ridge to ½ of the width of the house. Multiply the obtained value by 100 – this will be the value of the roof slope. For the convenience of determining the angle of the roof, professional builders use special calculations and graphs. They can easily be found on the Internet. As for the cost of building the roof, the greater the slope, the more expensive the construction will cost.
Despite the fact that the construction of pitched roofs is more expensive, for each developer the priority will be the reliability of the roof, rather than the cost of its construction. Thus, the pitched model will be the right kind of roof of greenhouse. The slope of such a roof will be determined by wind and snow load on the structure, as well as attractive appearance. In addition, the angle of inclination is determined using a specific roofing. For the laying of each type of material, manufacturing companies recommend an appropriate slope.
Strong gusts of wind can overthrow the roof with steep slopes, and raise it with gentle slopes
The use of roofing depending on the slope of the roof
In order for the roof to become a reliable protection for the house, in the choice of roofing, the angle of inclination of the slopes must be taken into account:
- slate (asbestos-cement corrugated sheets) – this coating can be used with a roof slope of 13 to 60 °. If the angle of inclination is less than 13 °, water will seep into the joints, and in winter, snow will clog. This will lead to a significant reduction in the life of the roof;
- ceramic tile – the optimal slope for this material lies in the range from 30 to 60 °. When laying such tiles on roofs whose slope is less than 25 °, measures should be taken to improve ventilation and waterproofing;
- metal – the popularity of using this material for the roof of greenhouse (photos confirm this) is very high. In addition to many advantages, when laying a metal tile, the maximum angle of inclination is not standardized. Minimum slope – 15 °;
When choosing a roofing, it is necessary to take into account the slope of the slopes
- corrugated board – used mainly for outbuildings. Laying is carried out with a slope of 10 ° without a limit;
- shingles – coating is applicable for roofs with a slope of more than 12 °. The maximum tilt angle indicator is unlimited. Suitable for intricate roofs, as it perfectly repeats the surface of any curvature;
- bituminous slate – wavy sheets of this material are used with a slope of 5 °. There is no maximum limit, however, the lathing pitch depends on the angle of inclination, and with a slope of 5 to 10 ° it will be necessary to equip a continuous flooring;
- rebated steel roofing – this material is laid with slopes starting at 20 °. There is no maximum tilt angle limitation.
Chart showing preferred roofing material depending on roof pitch
Helpful advice! When choosing a roofing, one should adhere to the following rule: the denser the structure of the material, the smaller the angle of inclination of the roof slopes should be.
Given the slope of the roof when using a roofing, it is possible to achieve high-quality installation of the material, prevent leakage and increase the life of the entire structure.
Classification of roof types by frame design
Pitched roofs depending on the configuration of the frame can have a different shape with certain features. The following types of roofs are distinguished:
- single slope;
- gable ;
An example of a harmonious combination of several types of roof: gable, single-pitch, tent
Slippery option. Such a roof has a fairly simple structure. Its only slope is located between two walls having different heights. The greater the difference between the height of the walls, the greater the slope of the roof. For its construction, any materials can be used. In private construction, it is mainly used for household units, garages or small garden houses.
Shed roof looks modern and stylish
Helpful advice! For private houses, single-pitch roofs are used if it is necessary to reduce the removal of water or snow on the roadway or sidewalk.
Photos of the flat roof of greenhouse often illustrate the unpresentable appearance of the structure, especially if the structure is low. In addition, this option almost eliminates the possibility of arranging an attic. But in the modern design of buildings, this roof option is quite popular.
Gable roof. View gable roof is a structure of two slopes connected to each other by means of a ridge. This roof is the most common among pitched models for private homes. The photos of the gable roof types illustrate that the slopes can be located both symmetrically and with different slopes. The length of the ramps can also be different.
The gable roof option is the most popular among pitched species
Due to the fact that under such roofs you can equip an attic or attic, they are considered quite practical. Elements of the walls of the structure that limit the attic or attic space are called gables. Gable roof structures provide unhindered rainfall and minimize leakage. It should be noted that in regions where stormy winds are frequent, the roof can be torn down due to poor streamlining.
Attic construction. Such a roof is a kind of gable structure with a broken profile. Each slope of the attic roof has two levels: the upper slope with a gentle slope, the lower one with the falling one. The main advantage of such a roof is the ability to maximize the use of space under the roof. Due to the fact that the structures are unstable to strong winds, the projects of mansard roofs of private houses suggest additional fixation of the roofing in the area of the falling ramp.
Sloping gable roof drawing
Helpful advice! If the attic is small, designers recommend not to hem the ceiling. Interior decoration can be done up to the ridge, which will add room to the room.
Hip roof. This type of roof is a combination of a gable and a tent structure. Here, the pediments replace the slopes in the shape of a triangle, which are called hips. Two other slopes have the shape of an isosceles trapezoid. The upper parts of the ramps are equipped with dormers. The frame structure can be built on a rectangular base. The space under the roof can also be used under the attic.
The hip roof is a combination of a gable and a tent structure
The hip roof has a streamlined shape, perfectly self-cleaning and resists winds, however, differs in a more complex design of the rafter system. In this regard, the erection of such a roof is recommended to be entrusted only to specialists. As for the cost of construction, it should be noted that during construction there is a large percentage of roofing waste and significant costs for roof windows.
Half-hip designs. Intermediate model between hip and gable roofs. A feature of this design is that the gable roof pediment at the top is covered with a small half-hip, which protects the skate from wind load. Streamlining of this form makes it appropriate to erect such roofs in regions where strong gusts of wind prevail.
An example of a half-hip roof of greenhouse
The appearance of the roof is quite attractive in terms of design. In the triangular parts of the gables, you can equip dormers of a full size. Half-hips serve as decorative elements. In terms of design, this type of roof is rather complicated and involves the participation of professionals.
Tent roof models. One of the varieties of the hip structure includes a hipped roof. Such a model has 3 or more slopes of a triangular shape, which converge at the top at one point. All slopes are performed symmetrically to each other. Tent roofs are used in cases where the houses have the correct shape of a square or polygon. They are very attractive in appearance.
The hipped structure is quite resistant to winds. The complexity of the construction of the rafter system is explained by the strictly symmetrical geometric shape of the roof. If sheet material acts as a coating, the amount of waste will be large. The cost will be affected by the installation of roof windows.
Different types of roofs for country houses and cottages
Helpful advice! To make the tent roof look aesthetically attractive, it is recommended to use shingles as a roofing.
Multi-gable roofs. Such roofs are considered one of the most complex structures both with respect to the rafter system and with respect to the laying of the roofing. This is due to the presence in the device of a large number of ribs, valleys and other structural elements. It is used in homes that have a complex polygonal shape.
The exterior of the multi-gable roof is very distinctive. Thanks to modern roofing with a rich color palette, the roof can be made bright and lively. In addition, under such a roof you can equip the side attics of a small area.
By combining different types of roofs, you can get an interesting look at home
Dome constructions. The domed or conical structure is a rounded roof without edges, converging at the highest point. This is a rather rare kind of roof of greenhouse. Photos of such structures indicate that in most cases such a roof is used only for individual elements of the building, for example, such as small turrets or round terraces.
Vaulted roofs. The basis of this design is the base of the rafters of a shape curved into an arc. As a greenhouse roofs is used very rarely. This shape of the roof is rational for large buildings such as sports facilities or public buildings. In private buildings, it can be used as an additional element in combination with a design of a different shape.
The domed roof structure is most often used for individual elements of the building.
Spire-shaped roofs. The main difference between such exclusive roofs is the acute angle created by sharp slopes. The construction of the spire takes a lot of time, since it is very precisely necessary to choose the slope and material for the roof. As a rule, a spire is erected as a decorative element crowning domed roofs or turrets.
Due to its complexity and laboriousness of execution, such a construction is erected only by professionals. Spiers are very rarely used in the design of the roofs of private houses. The photos show that they are mainly used in the construction of temples, buildings in the Gothic style and other monumental structures.
Helpful advice! Even the only minor mistake made during the erection of a spire-shaped roof can spoil the appearance of the entire structure.
There is a spire-like roof type in the design of the roof of the house in Victorian style.
There is also such a thing as combined roofs. Such roofs in their construction contain several types at once, for example, a combination of tent, hip, multi-tongue and other forms. Combined roofs are difficult to design, build and maintain, but they always have an interesting and sophisticated look.
Attic roof of greenhouse. Photo and description of structures
An attic type of roof is an excellent option to increase the useful area of greenhouse. The dimensions of the additional room will determine the shape and type of the attic roof. The geometric shapes of such a roof can have a different configuration, and the roof itself can cover the entire building or a small part of it.
Thanks to the attic, you can significantly increase the useful area of the house, for example, by placing sleeping rooms there
Types of attic roofs. Photo of private houses with a functional roof
There are several varieties of attic roofs:
- single slope;
- broken line.
Shed mansard roof. Mansard roofs in a single-ply version look peculiar. Such designs are quite simple in construction due to the lack of a ridge and the difficulties that its arrangement entails. The attic is formed due to the different heights of the walls on which the beams of the structure rest. The attic floor under such a roof is rather miniature.
Schemes for arranging an insulated attic and ventilation of the roof space
Symmetric attic roof. This type of roof is built on the basis of a gable model. The walls of the attic in this embodiment will have the same width and height. This form provides the ability to install indoors full-fledged window structures and doors leading to a balcony or terrace.
Asymmetrical shape. Such roofs are obtained as a result of hip placement of slopes. It should be borne in mind that a room under an asymmetric roof will have a small area. The outlines of the opposite walls of such a room will be as follows: two in the shape of a triangle, two in the shape of a trapezoid.
Tent attic design. A room under such a roof can have a specific configuration: round, conical or pyramidal. In this regard, it is very difficult to enter windows or doors into the walls of such attics. Window structures of this form will need to be made to order according to a special project, which will cause a significant increase in the cost of construction.
When erecting a roof, you need to carefully consider the location and design of the dormer
Helpful advice! When arranging window structures in the attic, pay attention to how they will open. Windows that open in and down can cause injuries to the person who opens them. Opening the window outward with the handle located above is optimal.
Broken roof. If you want to make maximum use of the space under the roof, the choice of a broken roof will be the right one. In this case, it is possible to significantly reduce the so-called dead zones, the area of which cannot be used as useful. Thanks to external fractures of the faces, the attic space can be expanded, while the choice of a straight roof limits the rational use of the space under it.
Under the combined roof of the country house is the attic floor
The broken roof structures are distinguished by the small height of the walls of the rooms that have turned out under them. Installation of such a roof is justified when the attic is built on an already erected building. In this case, you don’t have to worry about the additional load on the foundation, the project of which did not initially imply the presence of an additional residential floor.
A roof is considered popular, the basis of the design of which is triangular figures: upper and lower. The design scheme of the upper triangles involves both a hanging and a layered rafter system, and the bottom – only a layered one. At the base of the upper slopes are isosceles triangles, and the lower have two rectangular triangles at the base.
Living room located on the attic of greenhouse
Mansard roof insulation and waterproofing
The design of one or another mansard roof depends on the load to which the roof will be exposed above and below. It should not be forgotten that warm air flows rise and settle in the form of condensate on the inner surface of the roof. Therefore, the technology of erecting mansard roofs of private houses must necessarily take into account high-quality heat, steam and waterproofing.
Helpful advice! When building an attic roof, pay attention to the distribution of ventilation risers and chimneys: do not allow them to be located in the valleys.
The scheme of the device of an insulated attic roof
In order to be comfortable in the attic, it is necessary to use a heat-insulating material that will contribute to this regardless of the time of year. If the roofing cake is made in compliance with all technological rules, the microclimate in the room will be normal.
To make the right choice of heat-insulating materials will help knowledge of their main characteristics, which include:
- resistance to temperature extremes;
- low thermal conductivity;
- moisture resistance;
- invulnerability to mechanical stress;
- environmental friendliness;
- fire safety;
- density up to 250 kg / m³.
The technology of the construction of attic roofs must necessarily take into account high-quality heat, steam and waterproofing
The technology of thermal insulation in the attic is similar to the insulation of ordinary roofs, however, due to some criteria, increased requirements are imposed on it. The role of the walls in the attic rooms is performed by slopes and pediments, due to which they overheat in the summer and quickly cool in the cold season. Therefore, the sequence of layers of the cake should be strictly observed:
- Vapor barrier.
- Insulation material.
- Ventilation (air) clearance.
- Waterproofing layer.
- Roofing coating material .
Using a heater, you should pay attention to its thermal conductivity (the ability to retain and transmit heat). The lower the thermal conductivity, the better the material will retain heat in the room, protecting it from cooling. Mansard roofs are more prone to heat loss in the winter, as heat flows upward, approaching the roofing.
The process of warming the attic roof with mineral wool
In winter, the following process is observed: the snow covering the roof surface serves as a kind of heat insulator. If the heat loss is large, the snow on the roof begins to melt, turning into a dense crust of ice, which does not retain heat and creates an additional load on the roof. Properly laid insulation will prevent snow melting and ice formation.
In extreme heat, the attic room becomes very hot. To avoid this, they arrange thermal insulation from the inside. The number of layers for internal protection depends on the properties of the material. For these purposes, they usually use: polyurethane foam, mineral wool, extruded polystyrene, slag wool, glass wool, foamed glass. From natural heaters, straw, slag, wood shavings, reed panels will be used.
Mineral wool is one of the most popular materials for roof insulation.
Greenhouse roofs. Types of roofs by design: shape matters
The modern roof design involves many different and original designs. The shape of the roof determines not only the proper degree of protection of the house from external influences, but also provides architectural expressiveness. In private construction, the choice of design is limited only by the financial capabilities of the owner of the house, which allows the roof to become the main decorative element in the design of the whole house.
Beautiful roofs of private houses: photo gallery of various designs
You can definitely advise the optimal type of roof, given not only the technology of construction, but also the wishes of the owner of the house. Architectural preferences in the private sector also depend on the area where the house is located, since each region has long been distinguished by its style and identity. To find out what are the roofs of private houses (photos of numerous options are available on the Internet), you need to study this issue, after which the choice of the most suitable option will not be difficult.
Despite the simple design, there are many ways to combine a flat roof with the modern design style of private construction. Monoskatny version of the roof has an insignificant set of components and does not require significant financial investments. In the design of flat roofs, many use a new original direction – landscaping. A roof covered with flowers and greenery will add a portion of romance to the whole house.
The most popular in suburban villages is a gable roof. Photos of private houses show typical models of gable structures. The gable roof looks original with slopes that are different in length and slope; the classic model with symmetrical inclined planes is more stringent. An important detail is the possibility of equipping the attic under the gable roof of a one-story private house. The photo characterizes the simplicity and functionality of this type of roof.
Timber house with complex composite roof
Photos of the hip roofs of private houses indicate that such a roof design is mainly used for large-area cottages. Houses with such roofs look more solid and presentable. Due to the lack of gables in the design, the height of the houses with a hip roof visually seems smaller, but this feeling is fully compensated by the presence of dormer and dormer windows. They perfectly illuminate the attic and make the facade of the whole house more picturesque.
Exceptional ergonomic advantages are broken roof structures. Photos of broken roofs of greenhouses clearly illustrate the maximum efficiency of the use of usable space. Despite the fact that the construction of such a design entails high costs, these models are actively used in private construction.
Classic gable roof model with symmetrical ramps
Helpful advice! Those who dream of a two-story cottage, but limited financially, should pay attention to the attic roofs. This will be an excellent option with minimal investment.
Lovers of unusual design are the best fit multi-gable roof. Such designs can be attributed to these masterpieces. Their uniqueness lies in the large number of ribs, faces, tongs and slopes. This shape of the roof has become popular in modern private construction of cottages with attic rooms. If a successful project is selected, you can erect a unique design associated with the roofs of fabulous towers.
Having considered all the options for roofs for private houses and carefully understanding the features and advantages of each of them, you can make the best decision in your case. The main thing is that your house should be under reliable protection.